Project ABC Science Team Meeting, Yokohama, September 22, 2003


Science Team Members present:

Akimoto, Carmichael, Crutzen, KR Kim, Mitra, Nakajima, Ramanathan, Rodhe.


Secretariat Representatives: S. Shrestha (Exec Secretary, UNEP-AP), H. Nguyen (Exec Secretary, C4) and M. Iyngararasan (UNEP-AP)



Howard Diamond, NOAA

Young J. Kim (KJIST, Korea)

Makoto Koike (U of Tokyo, Japan), member of IGAC SSC

Yutaka Kondo (U. of Tokyo, Japan)

Gianni Tatari (Ev-K2-CNR, Italy)

ZifaWang (IAP, China) representing Guang-Yu Shi



A. Ramanathan proposed an Intercomparision and Model Validation Exercise for the 2 super sites at Maldives (MCO) and Gosan for Fall 2004.This will be an activity for the entire team.


Tentatively, October 2004; duration at least 2-3 weeks


Focus:Black Carbon and Lidar Measurements.However, all of the ABC relevant measurements and instruments will be used for the inter comparison study.


South Asian instruments to be brought to MCO, East Asian instruments to Gosan


The two sites will be linked up via tele-videoconference facility for lectures and training sessions.



Overall Coordinator:Ramanathan


For Gosan

Overall Coordinator:KR Kim


Action Item, for everyone:

*Each group, kindly inform H. Nguyen the name of contact person


Action Item for Ram and everyone:

*Funds to be raised to support travels and meeting expenses


Working Groups to be formed within next 3 weeks

WG Leaders:



Chemistry (Ozone and CO):Akimoto


Action Item:

Mitra will ask for Indian O3 sondes

Ram will ask S. Oltmans for launching O3 sondes.


VOTE:All present ST Members unanimously voted YES in favor of the October 2004 Comparison and Validation Exercise.


B. Ozone Forcing



Ram will contact S. Oltmans of NOAAfor launching Ozone sondes.

Crutzen will contact Ann Thompson next month in Boulder, Colorado.She is interested in vertical profiles in the tropics, perhaps will launch sondes from MCO while Oltmans could do so from Gosan?


It was noted that there is no US funding for air chemistry.Oltmans could be interested since NOAA funds US-ABC.Needs other countries to do O3 profiling (Mitra said IMD is interested and could be persuaded to launch O3 balloons from MCO).Thus the need of inter-comparison of US and Indian ozone sondes.


It is not certain if Ozone could be on par with Aerosol Forcing focus


Ozone forcing not being US emphasis, but is important to Japan and India.

If resources can be found, ST would consider adding this to be an official objective of ABC


Also, on a related issue, it was noted that CO is needed for to tag biomass burning.Only surface is doable.Profiling requires aircraft.No US funding, needs other countries to do.


C. ABC Data Protocol


It was noted that Len Barrie of WMO is a ST member.ST invites him to lead the discussion to ensure ABC data protocol closely match with GAW requirements.He will be invited to the next ABC Science Team Meeting in New Delhi, February 04.


D. New Observatories


1. Kirgistan (proposed by Akimoto)


Kirgistan, a high altitude station, could be important for long range transport of European pollution into Central Asia.But its location is quite far removed from the area of immediate concern for ABC, thus it was unclear to ST as of what action is required.Kirgistan could be an "associate site" to ABC, but the issue of long-range transport site in Central Asia will be revisited at next meeting.


2. Pune, India (proposed by Rodhe)

Rodhe proposes precipitation chemistry at 5 ABC sites; 4 of which are collocated with ABC sites, and Pune.


Pune is important since ABC currently lacks a site in India, but the concern is data availability.Mitra confirmed that while processed data could be exchange, but raw data would be difficult.Rodhe assured ST that data of his instruments (precipitation chemistry) at Pune will be available, and that IMT has agreed that Pune be made an ABC site.


Decision:Add Pune to ABC as a "supplemental site".ST instructs Nguyen to add Pune on the ABC Site Map.


3. Pimai, Thailand (proposed by Nakajima)

It has been decided that the current site in Sri Samrong will be moved to Pimai.This is a Japan-funded site.


In addition, recognition by ABC is sought for the siteís resident scientist, Ms. Thanna Boossersiri, to help with funding situation.


In the discussion, ST members raised concerns about pending funding support to potential site, ideally, it must be a long term site for ABC to accept since ABC is a long term program.Longterm could be defined as having at least 5 years of funding support.


Decision:Defer decision until completion of the move from Sri Samrong to Pimai (in 6 months).Could revisit at next meeting.Ms. Boossersiri could be a "site scientist" for the Pimai site of ABC.


4. Pyramid Station at Mt Everest, Nepal. (G. Tartari via Crutzen)

At this time, ST went into long discussion on proper classification of ABC sites.Currently, there are 3 classes:supersite (full instrumentation and calibration capability), main site (full instrumentation w/o calibration) and supplementary site (sub set of instruments).There was discussion on adding a new class, "exploratory site".


Pyramid, or Ev-K2-CNR site, a part of 3 related site from the foot of Mt. Everest to 5.2 km with Pyramid being the highest.Currently, there is no radiation measurement.Additional instrument could be added.While Pyramid, due to its unique location at high altitude, could be the place for exciting discoveries, but its contribution to ABC "core program" is unclear at the moment.It is therefore recognized as "exploratory" site for ABC.To assist Tartari in finding funding support, Ramanathan and Crutzen will write a letter of endorsement to the Ev-K2-CNR Committee.


5. Supersite in China (proposed by Guang-Yu Shi)

Since Shi is not present, the issue was deferred until next meeting.


E. New Members


Replacement for Meng Fan with a CEPA-recommended scientist.This issue was deferred until after the China visit; Ramanathan and Crutzen will report to ST


New Science Team member from India for aerosol.Ramanathan proposed A. Jayaraman of ARL, Ahmadabad, India.After much discussion on the optimal number of member per country, there was a proposal to add one more member each for Japan (currently 2) and Korea (currently 1) when adding the third Indian.In view that other countries might also request more members, thus the ST will be unwieldingly large, Ramanathan withdrew his



It was decided that the issue of "improving country representation in ST" be discussed at the next meeting.


Thus, affiliations from Sri Lanka and other countries also be deferred until next meeting.


F. Impact study issues:deferred to next meeting


G.Formal Decision Making Process

There is a distinct need to make it clear to the outside world the separation of science and policy. In addition, as more countries join ABC in the future, as well as the possible increase of the number of members per country, there is a concern on how to maintain STís effectiveness


Also, currently there are several proposals that needs review and endorsement/approval by ST.There must be a proper mechanism set up for this important function.


The ST requests that a sub committee of Akimoto, Carmichael and Rodhe to make proposal to ST for better structuring of the decision making process.


H. Joining IGAC.

Koike, member of IGAC SSC, proposed ABC to be a part of IGAC, since there are many overlaps.Also, MegaCities Asia has been approved by IGAC while ABC is weak on this research.ST members commented on the funding advantages for ABC programs in Japan, Korea and India, if ABC activities are deemed to be those of IGAC (thus IGBP) because IGBP has already been "approved" by the governments.


It is noticed that, in turn, ABC may lose some of its independence in setting scientific priorities since "tasks" will have to be approved by IGAC SSC.


It was decided there is no urgency in making a decision at this time until Crutzen and Rodhe have discussed the matters with IGAC leadership, and also convey ST invitation to all 3 IGAC co-Chairs to the next ABC meeting in February 04.


I. Date and Venue of Next Meeting


February 2-4, 2004 in India, just prior to the TERI Meeting.Dr. Pachauri recommends a South Asian workshop and will invite several regional scientists.


Feb 2: Scientific presentation by ST members

Feb 3: South Asian Workshop

Feb 4: Committee Meeting (morning only)


Ramanathan will seek funding support for South Asian participants from US

sources (NOAA has been very receptive) and urges other members to do the

same in their countries


KR Kim conveyed invitation to ABC ST to meet in Korea.After the next meeting in India, Korean colleagues would like to host a meeting.